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Cocaine True, Cocaine Blue

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In some cases, the liquified cocaine may be mixed with an opioid to create a “speedball.” Types Of Cocaine That Are Smoked

However, the official opinion of the National Institute on Drug Abuse of the United States warns about health risks while cautioning against stereotyping: Using cocaine also damages several major organ systems. Regardless of the delivery system, cocaine damages your gastrointestinal tract and your cardiovascular system.Coca protects the body from many ailments, and our doctors use it in powdered form to reduce the swelling of wounds, to strengthen broken bones, to expel cold from the body or prevent it from entering, and to cure rotten wounds or sores that are full of maggots. And if it does so much for outward ailments, will not its singular virtue have even greater effect in the entrails of those who eat it? [161] Isolation and naming Travnikoff B (1 April 1983). "Semiquantitative screening test for cocaine". Analytical Chemistry. 55 (4): 795–796. doi: 10.1021/ac00255a048. ISSN 0003-2700. a) Willstatter R (1903). "Synthese der Ecgoninsäure" [Synthesis of Tropine]. Liebigs Ann. (in German). 326 (1–2): 23. doi: 10.1002/jlac.19033260105. (b) Robinson RJ (1917). "LXIII. A synthesis of tropinone". J. Chem. Soc., Trans. 111: 762–768. doi: 10.1039/CT9171100762. (c) Schopf C, Lehman G (1935). "Die Synthese des Tropinons, Frazer KM, Richards Q, Keith DR (August 2018). "The long-term effects of cocaine use on cognitive functioning: A systematic critical review". Behavioural Brain Research. 348: 241–262. doi: 10.1016/j.bbr.2018.04.005. PMID 29673580. S2CID 4992738. In 1856, Friedrich Wöhler asked Dr. Carl Scherzer, a scientist aboard the Novara (an Austrian frigate sent by Emperor Franz Joseph to circle the globe), to bring him a large amount of coca leaves from South America. In 1859, the ship finished its travels and Wöhler received a trunk full of coca. Wöhler passed on the leaves to Albert Niemann, a PhD student at the University of Göttingen in Germany, who then developed an improved purification process. [163]

de Souza MF, Gonçales TA, Steinmetz A, Moura DJ, Saffi J, Gomez R, Barros HM (April 2014). "Cocaine induces DNA damage in distinct brain areas of female rats under different hormonal conditions". Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology & Physiology. 41 (4): 265–9. doi: 10.1111/1440-1681.12218. PMID 24552452. S2CID 20849951. Cocaine use leads to increases in alertness, feelings of well-being and euphoria, increased energy and motor activity, and increased feelings of competence and sexuality. [45] Gullapalli BT, Natarajan A, Angarita GA, Malison RT, Ganesan D, Rahman T (21 June 2019). "On-body Sensing of Cocaine Craving, Euphoria and Drug-Seeking Behavior Using Cardiac and Respiratory Signals". Proceedings of the ACM on Interactive, Mobile, Wearable and Ubiquitous Technologies. 3 (2): 1–31. doi: 10.1145/3328917. S2CID 195357215.

a b World Health Organization (2004). Neuroscience of psychoactive substance use and dependence. World Health Organization. p.89. ISBN 978-9241562355. Archived from the original on 30 April 2016. The first synthesis and elucidation of the structure of the cocaine molecule was by Richard Willstätter in 1898. [133] It was the first biomimetic synthesis of an organic structure recorded in academic chemical literature. [165] [166] The synthesis started from tropinone, a related natural product and took five steps.

Embury-Dennis T. "It's legal to manufacture cocaine and heroin for medical use — and Britain is the world's biggest exporter". Business Insider. Cocaine crosses the blood–brain barrier via both a proton-coupled organic cation antiporter [19] [20] and (to a lesser extent) via passive diffusion across cell membranes. [21] As of September 2022, the gene or genes encoding the human proton-organic cation antiporter had not been identified. [101] a b Mégarbane, B; Chevillard, L (5 December 2013). "The large spectrum of pulmonary complications following illicit drug use: features and mechanisms". Chemico-Biological Interactions. 206 (3): 444–51. doi: 10.1016/j.cbi.2013.10.011. PMID 24144776. a b Fattinger K, Benowitz NL, Jones RT, Verotta D (July 2000). "Nasal mucosal versus gastrointestinal absorption of nasally administered cocaine". European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology. 56 (4): 305–10. doi: 10.1007/s002280000147. PMID 10954344. S2CID 20708443.a b Tega Y, Tabata H, Kurosawa T, Kitamura A, Itagaki F, Oshitari T, Deguchi Y (January 2021). "Structural Requirements for Uptake of Diphenhydramine Analogs into hCMEC/D3 Cells Via the Proton-Coupled Organic Cation Antiporter". Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 110 (1): 397–403. doi: 10.1016/j.xphs.2020.09.001. PMID 32898521. Cole, Claire; Jones, Lisa; McVeigh, Jim; Kicman, Andrew; Syed, Qutub; Belis, Mark A. (2010). Cut: A Guide to Adulterants, Bulking Agents and other Contaminants found in Illicit Drugs. Centre for Public Health, Liverpool John Moores University. pp.6–25. R. Baselt, Disposition of Toxic Drugs and Chemicals in Man, 9th edition, Biomedical Publications, Seal Beach, California, 2011, pp. 390–394. Synthetic forms of cocaine (fake cocaine) are sometimes used in medicine as a local anesthetic. When synthetic cocaine is sold for recreational use, it is often a synthetic cathinone. DrugFacts: Cocaine". National Institute on Drug Abuse. April 2013. Archived from the original on 11 July 2015 . Retrieved 11 July 2015.

Aspirin is an anti-platelet medicine that thins the blood and reduces the risk of blood clots forming (arterial thrombosis).

What is cocaine?

Moisse, Katie (June 22, 2011). "Cocaine Laced With Veterinary Drug Levamisole Eats Away at Flesh". ABC News . Retrieved 10 July 2020. Ries RK, Miller SC, Fiellin DA (2009). Principles of addiction medicine. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. p.137. ISBN 978-0-7817-7477-2. Archived from the original on 4 April 2014 . Retrieved 5 January 2014. Drug Fact Sheet: Cocaine" (PDF). Drug Enforcement Agency. Archived (PDF) from the original on 21 June 2020 . Retrieved 17 June 2022.

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